1 a law officer having duties similar to those of a sheriff in carrying out the judgments of a court of law [syn: marshall]
2 (in some countries) a military officer of highest rank [syn: marshall]
1 place in proper rank; "marshal the troops"
2 arrange in logical order; "marshal facts or arguments"
EtymologyOld French mareschal (stable officer, see mare) < from Frankish *marhskalk (horse-servant) < Proto-Germanic *markhaz (horse), possibly from a Gaulish word of unknown origin, + Proto-Germanic *skalkaz (servant).
- A high-ranking officer in the household of a medieval prince or lord, who was originally in charge of the cavalry and later the military forces in general.
- A military officer of the highest rank in several countries, including France and the former Soviet Union; equivalent to a general of the army in the United States. See also field marshal.
- A person in charge of the ceremonial arrangement and management of a gathering.
- A sheriff's assistant.
- The highest ranking piece in the board game Stratego.
A military officer of the highest rank
A person in charge of the ceremonial arrangement and management of a gathering
A sheriff’s assistant
to arrange troops
- Portuguese: colocar em forma
to arrange facts
to ceremoniously guide
- This article is about a title. For other meanings, see Marshal (disambiguation).
MilitaryIn many countries, the rank of Marshal is the highest Army rank, outranking Field Marshals, Grand Admirals and Generals. Marshals are very sparsely appointed, and typically only in war-time (although this need not be the case). The special symbol of a Marshal is a baton, and so their insignia often incorporate batons. In some countries, the word Marshal is also used instead of General in the higher Air force ranks. The four highest Royal Air Force ranks are Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal, Air Marshal and Air Vice Marshal (although the first, which has generally been suspended as a peacetime rank, is the only one which can properly be considered a marshal). The 5 star rank of Marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth air forces.
In the French army and some armies based on the French army, Maréchal des logis ( Marshal-of-Lodgings ) is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant.
Some historical rulers have used special Marshal titles to reward certain subjects. Though not strictly military ranks, these honorary titles have been exclusively bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous Grand Marshal of Ayacucho Antonio Jose de Sucre. Most famous are the Marshals of France (Maréchaux de France), not least under Napoleon I. Another such title was that of Reich Marshal (Reichsmarschall), that was bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title.
Soviet Union and Russia have both General of the Army and Marshal in their rank system, which leaves the latter as a largely honorary rank.
Marshal ranks by countryThe following articles deal with the rank of Marshal as used by specific countries:
- Marshal of Bolivia
- Marshal of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
- Marshal of Finland (Finland)
- Marshal of France (France)
- Marshal-of-Lodgings (France)
- Marshal (Japan)
- Marshal of Italy (Italy)
- Marshal of Paraguay
- Marshal of Peru
- Marshal of Poland (Poland)
- Marshal of Romania (Romania)
- Marshal of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)
- Marshal of the Soviet Union (Soviet Union)
- Maresal (Turkey)
- Marshal of Venezuela
- Marshal of Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia)
- Mariscal and the upper Condestable (Spanish language countries)
These non-European ranks are considered the equivalent to a Marshal
- In feudal times, at many courts one or more of the major dignitaries were styled marshal or a compound such as court marshal (not related to court martial) or grand marshal; their functions varied, also in time, but frequently included formally announcing guests at audiences, balls, dinners, etc. Such prestigious office was often made hereditary in the high nobility, e.g. the English Earl Marshal, or the Scots Earl Marischal.
- The term is still used in modern pageantry; for example, the grand marshal of a parade is often an honored guest or dignitary
- In the United States, many colleges and universities have marshals. In some cases there is a single "faculty marshal," appointed to the post on a more or less stable basis. In others, there are one or several faculty marshals, and often one or several student marshals appointed for a single occasion. In all cases the post is one of honor given to a senior faculty member or outstanding students, and the functions are generally exclusively involved with the leading of processions or parts of processions during commencement exercises, academic convocations and similar events. Often, they carry maces, staffs or wands of office.
Law enforcementThe word Marechaussee seems to derive from the old French name Marecheaux given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term Marechaussee was also used for the Continental Army's military police during the American Revolution.
United StatesParticularly in the United States, marshal is used for various kinds of law enforcement officers.
Federal MarshalsThe federal court system in the United States is organized into 94 federal judicial districts, each with a court (and one or several judges), a United States Attorney with assistants as prosecutors and government lawyers, and one marshal, appointed by the president, in charge of federal law enforcement. The courts are part of the independent judicial branch of the government, while the marshals and US attorneys are part of the executive branch Department of Justice.
In actual practice, the US marshal for the district mainly oversees court security, and has a unit of appointed deputies (other law enforcement operations and the federal prison system are handled by a variety of federal police agencies) and Special Deputies.
The United States Marshals Service is a professional, civil service unit of federal police, part of the system of marshals explained above but made up of career law enforcement personnel rather than the appointed district marshals. The US Marshals Service assists with court security, prisoner transport, serves arrest warrants and seeks fugitives.
Federal Air Marshal Service is a separate, armed federal law enforcement service employed to protect commercial airliners from the threat of Skyjacking. (Though called Air Marshals, they are completely unrelated to the military rank mentioned above, and are not to be confused with it.) These officers, like the above marshals, work for the executive branch of the US government.
The US Supreme Court maintains its own, separate Marshal of the Supreme Court who also controls the US Supreme Court Police, a security police service answerable to the court itself rather than to the president or attorney general. It handles security for the Supreme Court building, for the justices personally, and undertakes whatever other missions the court may require.
State and Local
- In many American States marshals could be found acting at the
state, local or municipal court level, marshals could be court
bailiffs and/or serving process or even full police officers.
Although some may be sworn peace officers their job is, in certain
cases entirely civil rather than criminal law enforcement. Some
communities maintain a Town Marshal who is responsible for general
law enforcement as well as court duties, while others are strictly
court officers. This is especially true in communities with both
police and marshals.
- In the American Old West (example, Arizona Territory of the 1880s), marshals, usually called the "Town Marshal", or "City Marshal" (since the larger cities were often punctilious about their titles) were appointed or elected police officers of small communities, with similar powers and duties to that of a police chief, generally with powers ending at the border of the community. By contrast, federal marshals (U.S. marshals) would work in a larger, possibly overlapping area, especially in pioneering country, in an area overlapping with the state or territorial office of county sheriff (who then, as now, policed communities as well as areas between communities). The word is still used in this sense, especially in the Southwest United States. (See List of Western lawmen). Town or City Marshal is still the name for the head officer of some community police forces.
- In California, several counties maintained separate county marshal's Offices which served as court officers similar to US Marshals. Most have been merged into or taken over by the local County Sheriff's Office. California also has Fire Marshals and Deputy Fire Marshals. These individuals may work for the State of California Fire Marshal's Office, or various county, city or special districts throughout the state. Fire Marshals and Deputy Fire Marshals are full-time sworn peace officers throughout the state, with powers of arrest state wide under section 830.37 of the California Penal Code. Responsibilities include fire and arson investigation, bomb and explosives investigation, general law enforcement as well as enforcement of the Fire Code.
- In Connecticut, marshals serve as court officers. They are separated into two classes: State Marshals are charged with service of process, and Judicial Marshals perform court security and transport detainees to and from court.
- In Georgia, the Marshal is a civil law enforcement officer in some counties and may have some patrol duties.
- In Indiana, In towns which still have them, Marshals are responsible for law enforcement in a town. His usual duties are the enforcement of local ordinances and code enforcement. He may also be the town's humane officer.
- In Maine the State Marshal Service provides physical security and law enforcement duties to the judicial system as well as protection of all state judges. Deputy Marshals are fully sworn state law enforcement officers with statewide authority.
- In Missouri the State Marshals provides physical security and law enforcement duties to the judicial system as well as protection of all state judges. Deputy Marshals are fully sworn state law enforcement officers with statewide authority.
- At the local level in the State of Missouri, City Marshals are elected Chief Law Enforcement Officers of the city. They have the same police powers as a regular Police Officer within the City limits of their city. The amount of training to be a city Marshal is far less then a regular municipal police officer, as such a Marshal's jurisdiction is strictly limited to the city limits of the city they are elected from. Even if they witness a violation of the Law in their city, they can not pursue a person if they flee beyond the city limits. The position of City Marshal is rare in the State of Missouri and is only found in very small rural cities that do not have the budget to maintain a Police Department. http://www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/c000-099/0850000610.htm http://www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/c000-099/0850000551.htm http://www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/c000-099/0790000055.htm
- In California Each county maintains a Marshal's Office for duties of general county court security, bailiff and process of civil service including evictions.
- In Colorado Cities, towns and villages decide whether to appoint a Marshal, elect a Sheriff or have the board/council/city manager hire a Chief of Police as the top criminal law enforcement for their jurisdiction. Marshals are elected by the trustees to serve a fixed term, sheriffs are elected by the citizens for a fixed term, chiefs of police can be fired at will by whoever hired them just like any other employee.
- In New York City, New York, City Marshals are appointed by the Mayor to 5-year terms, but receive no salary from the city. Instead, the Marshal pays New York City a percentage of the fees he receives for collecting to the judgments. As Public Officials, City marshals may, depending on the court order brought to them by the winning litigant, seize money, moveable property (for instance, inventory from a business), vehicles (as with defaulted car loans), real property return possession of rental premises to the landlord, (they can evict tenants), and so on. Marshals are overseen by the Department of Investigation, a mayoral department.
- In Ohio the term village marshal has been used for the same, often without any colleague, directly under the Mayor.
- In Texas, city marshals and deputy city marshals have, by law, the same authority as a municipal (village, town, or city) police officer. However, municipalities that have both a police force as well as a city marshal's office often utilize the police as the general law enforcement agency of the municipality, while court security and process service is provided by the city marshal's office. In municipalities that do not have a police department, the city marshal's office sometimes serves as the agency that provides general law enforcement services to residents.
- In Washington, the City of Seattle employs Marshals in their Municipal Court, with the senior officer holding the title of Chief Marshal and the subordinate officers being Deputy Marshals.
FranceIn France the Maréchaussée was the forerunner of the French Gendarmerie. A military corps having such duties was first created in 1337 and was placed under the command of the Constable of France, and therefore named the connétablie. In 1626 after the aboliton of the title of connétable, it was put under the command of the Maréchal of France, and renamed Maréchaussée. Its main mission was protecting the roads from highwaymen.
The gens d'armes were originally heavy cavalry in the king's household, the equivalent of the "Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms". In 1720 the maréchaussée was subordinated to the gendarmerie; after the French Revolution the maréchaussée was abolished and the gendarmerie took over its duties in 1791.
It was a mounted military police force organised and equipped along military lines. While its existence ensured the relative safety of French rural districts and roads, the marechaussee was regarded in contemporary England (which had no effective police force of any nature) as a symbol of foreign tyranny. In 1789, on the eve of the French Revolution, the marechaussee numbered 3,660 men divided into small detachments called brigades. By law dated 16 February 1791 this force was renamed the gendarmerie nationale. Its personnel and role remained unchanged.
NetherlandsIn the Netherlands the Koninklijke Marechaussee are the gendarmerie force. Created by King William I to replace the French gendarmerie on October 26, 1814 . The word gendarmerie had gained a negative connotation, so William called the new force "marechaussée" (maréchaussée is an alternate French word for gendarmerie). At that time, the marechaussee was part of the army (landmacht). The marechaussee performed police duties for the army, as well as civilian police work as a part of the national police (rijkspolitie). The marechaussee would form the only police force in many small cities like Venlo, especially in the southern provinces of Limburg and North Brabant. As of 1998, the marechaussee is a separate branch of the Dutch military assigned with military and civilian police tasks.
PolandApart from its military uses, the Polish word marszałek (marshal) also refers to certain political offices:
- Marszałek Sejmu and Marszałek Senatu: the respective speakers of the lower house (Sejm) and upper house (Senate) of Poland's parliament, usually nominated by the governing party or coalition;
- marszałek województwa (voivodeship marshal): since 1999, the leader of the executive of a voivodeship (one of Poland's 16 provinces), elected by the regional assembly (sejmik), and co-existing with the government-appointed voivode (governor).
For other historical uses of the word, see marszałek.
Science fictionscience fiction works, both live action productions and literature. In the universe of Star Wars, the rank of Marshal is conjectured to be connected to the TIE fighter forces, being ranks held by senior TIE fighter commanders, equivalent to Imperial Navy Admirals. Several sources of the Star Wars Expanded Universe have conjectured the following Marshal ranks of the starfighter service.
- Grand Marshal
- High Marshal
- Force Marshal
- Chief Marshal
- Vice Marshal
OthersIn addition to Star Wars, the rank of Marshal may also be found in the novel Starship Troopers where the rank of Sky Marshal is held by the Commander-in-Chief of the military.
Marshal is also a military rank frequently found in the universe of Doctor Who where, more often than not, it is held by various villains who seek galactic domination through military force.
In the computer game StarCraft, the major character Jim Raynor holds the rank of Marshal at the story's outset.
In the Battletech universe, the British-themed Federated Suns uses the military rank of Marshal for a commander of a Regimental Combat Team or a Polymorphous Defense Zone, and the rank of Field Marshal for top echelon military commanders, typically encompassing the March Lords and the Prince's Champion.
Another example of the rank of Marshal in science fiction and fantasy can be found in Mercedes Lackey's world of Valdemar. One of the country's most important ranks is that of Lord Marshal.
In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Hide and Q" the entity Q took the appearance of a French marshal.
In Outland, Sean Connery plays Marshal William T. O'Niel who runs a police force for a mining colony on Io, one of Jupiter's moons.
- A university marshal often leads or guides graduates in a procession to the place where the graduation ceremony will take place.
Racing and other competitions
- In motor racing, rallying etc. the track marshals wave the Racing flags and assist crashed or broken down vehicles cars and their drivers, while pit marshals watch over the procedures in the pits, and fire marshals operate fire extinguisher if needed. The FIA provides http://www.fia.com/resources/documents/1653003624__Appendix_H_a.pdf general rules and recommendations on marshalling. In the 2000 Italian Grand Prix and 2001 Australian Grand Prix, track marshals were victims of fatal accidents
- In some organized competitions, such as the endurance sport Tough guy, officials, seeing to the observance of the rules, are styled marshals
- Marshal is the highest playing piece in the board game Stratego
marshal in Bulgarian: Маршал
marshal in Czech: Maršál
marshal in German: Marschall
marshal in Estonian: Marssal
marshal in Spanish: Mariscal
marshal in Esperanto: Marŝalo
marshal in French: Maréchal
marshal in Japanese: 元帥
marshal in Indonesian: Marsekal
marshal in Italian: Maresciallo
marshal in Dutch: Maarschalk
marshal in Norwegian: Marskalk
marshal in Portuguese: Marechal
marshal in Russian: Маршал
marshal in Slovenian: Maršal
marshal in Swedish: Marskalk
marshal in Ukrainian: Маршал
marshal in Urdu: سالار
marshal in Chinese: 元帅
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